Promoting independent complaint resolution

The role of an ombudsman

The institution of the ombudsman, first created in Sweden more than 200 years ago, is designed to provide protection for the individual where there is a substantial imbalance of power.

Initially, this imbalance was between the citizen and the state but as the institution has developed, it has embraced other sectors.  Ombudsmen now exist, not just in the public sector, but also covering the private and independent sectors.

As well as considering complaints about public services, Ombudsman Association member schemes consider disputes between consumers and companies or between universities and students, for example.

However, in the private sector, coverage is fragmented and sparse with, in a very few cases, some duplication (where the ‘industry member’ can choose which scheme to belong to). None of this is ideal, but will require legislation to improve the situation as few sectors now readily establish schemes voluntarily.

What ombudsmen do

In the private sector, ombudsmen usually have the power to make recommendations which are binding on the bodies in their jurisdiction unless successfully challenged through the courts.  The cost of their services is normally met by a charge to the bodies in their jurisdiction.  Most are established by, or as a result of, statute, and the relevant industry or sector is obliged to participate in the scheme.

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Basic information

Detailed information


The institution of the ombudsman, first created in Sweden more than 200 years ago, is designed to provide protection for the individual where there is a substantial imbalance of power.

Initially, this imbalance was between the citizen and the state but as the institution has developed, it has embraced other sectors.  Ombudsmen now exist, not just in the public sector, but also covering the private and independent sectors.

As well as considering complaints about public services, Ombudsman Association member schemes consider disputes between consumers and companies or between universities and students, for example.

However, in the private sector, coverage is fragmented and sparse with, in a very few cases, some duplication (where the ‘industry member’ can choose which scheme to belong to). None of this is ideal, but will require legislation to improve the situation as few sectors now readily establish schemes voluntarily.

What ombudsmen do

In the private sector, ombudsmen usually have the power to make recommendations which are binding on the bodies in their jurisdiction unless successfully challenged through the courts.  The cost of their services is normally met by a charge to the bodies in their jurisdiction.  Most are established by, or as a result of, statute, and the relevant industry or sector is obliged to participate in the scheme.

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Consumer complaints

Please note: there are currently no ombudsman schemes for many areas of consumer goods and services.

For advice and information about consumer goods and services, you should contact:

In the UK:
Citizens Advice Consumer Service Tel. 0345 404 0506

In Ireland:
Citizens Information Board
Tel. 0761 07 4000

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